Matsumoto Castle is one of four castles designated as 'National Treasures of Japan' and the oldest castle donjon remaining in Japan. Construction began in 1592 of the elegant black and white structure with its three turrets. It is located in the city of Matsumoto, in Nagano Prefecture and is within easy reach of Tokyo, Nagano and Hakuba by road or rail. Matsumoto Castle is a flatland castle (hirajiro) because it is not built on a hilltop or amid rivers, but on a plain. Its complete defences would have included an extensive system of inter-connecting walls, moats and gatehouses. Various events take place at Matsumoto Castle over the four seasons. These include ice carving, traditional gunnery exhibitions, cherry blossom viewing, taiko festival and moon feasts.